Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel method to increase cell proliferation rate. The phenomenon is based on the microporation of cellular organelles and membranes. However, we have limited information on the effects of nsPEF on cell physiology. Several studies have attempted to describe the effects of this process, however no real time measurements have been conducted to date. In this study we designed a model system which allows the measurement of cellular processes before, during and after nsPEF treatment in real time. The system employs a Vabrema Mitoplicator(TM) nsPEF field generating instrument connected to a BD Accuri C6 cytometer with a silicon tube led through a peristaltic pump.
This model system was applied to observe the effects of nsPEF in mammalian C6 glioblastoma (C6 glioma) and HEK-293 cell lines. Viability (using DRAQ7 dye), intracellular calcium levels (using Fluo-4 dye) and scatter characteristics were measured in a kinetic manner. Data were analyzed using the FACSKin software. The viability and morphology of the investigated cells was not altered upon nsPEF treatment.
The response of HEK-293 cells to ionomycin as positive control was significantly lower in the nsPEF treated samples compared to non-treated cells. This difference was not observed in C6 cells. FSC and SSC values were not altered significantly by the nsPEF treatment. Our results indicate that this model system is capable of reliably investigating the effects of nsPEF on cellular processes in real time. 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Analytical and diagnostic validation of a flow cytometric strategy to quantify blood and marrow infiltration in dogs with large B-cell lymphoma
Lymph node (LN), peripheral blood (PB), and bone marrow (BM) samples are commonly analyzed by flow cytometry (FC) for the immunophenotyping and staging of canine lymphomas. A prognostic value for FC BM infiltration in dogs with large B-cell Gentaur Accuris Instruments lymphoma (LBCL) was demonstrated. Aim of this study was to define the analytical performances of this technique, and to establish a cutoff suitable to safely discriminate between infiltrated and noninfiltrated PB and BM samples.
Large B-cells were added to control PB and BM samples, to achieve twelve different large B-cells concentrations, ranging from 0 to 50%. The percentage of large B-cells was recorded for each dilution, using a BD Accuri C6 FC. Accuracy was evaluated by Passing-Bablok regression analysis. Intra-assay precision was assessed at 0%, 1, 3, and 10% dilutions evaluating the CVs of 10 repeated acquisitions. ROC curves were drawn to identify the cutoffs most suitable to discriminate between 25 infiltrated (PARR-positive) and 25 noninfiltrated (PARR-negative) PB and BM samples, respectively.
Optimal analytical accuracy and precision were achieved. Almost all CVs were <10%. Negative controls had up to 0.5% large B-cells, with 50 and 22% CV in PB and BM samples, respectively, 0.56 and 2.45% cutoffs were selected based on the ROC curves for PB and BM samples, respectively.
Quantification of large B-cells in PB and BM samples by FC is reliable and analytical performances met the acceptance criteria. Assessment of performances of different instruments and protocols is warranted. 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.
Light depolarization measurements in malaria: A new job for an old friend
The use of flow cytometry in malaria research has increased over the last decade. Most approaches use nucleic acid stains to detect parasite DNA and RNA and require complex multi-color, multi-parameter analysis to reliably detect infected red blood cells (iRBCs). We recently described a novel and simpler approach to parasite detection based on flow cytometric measurement of scattered light depolarization caused by hemozoin (Hz), a pigment formed by parasite digestion of hemoglobin in iRBCs. Depolarization measurement by flow cytometry was described in 1987; however, patent issues restricted its use to a single manufacturer’s hematology analyzers until 2009.
Although we recently demonstrated that depolarization measurement of Hz, easily implemented on a bench top flow cytometer (Cyflow), provided useful information for malaria work, doubts regarding its application and utility remain in both the flow cytometry and malaria communities, at least in part because instrument manufacturers do not offer the option of measuring depolarized scatter.
Under such circumstances, providing other researchers with guidance as to how to do this seemed to offer the most expeditious way to resolve the issue. We accordingly examined how several commercially available flow cytometers (CyFlow SL, MoFLo, Attune and Accuri C6) could be modified to detect depolarization due to the presence of free Hz on solution, or of Hz in leukocytes or erythrocytes from rodent or human blood.
All were readily adapted, with substantially equivalent results obtained with lasers emitting over a wide wavelength range. Other instruments now available may also be modifiable for Hz measurement. Cytometric detection of Hz using depolarization is useful to study different aspects of malaria. Adding additional parameters, such as DNA content and base composition and RNA content, can demonstrably provide improved accuracy and sensitivity of parasite detection and characterization, allowing malaria researchers and eventually clinicians to benefit from cytometric technology.
Comparison and evaluation of seven different bench-top flow cytometers with a modified six-plexed mycotoxin kit.
Many bench-top flow cytometers (b-FCs) are compatible with microsphere-based multiplexed assays. Disciplines implementing b-FCs-based assays are expanding; they include monitoring and validating food quality. A multiplexed platform protocol was evaluated for poly-mycotoxin assays, which are compatible with a variety of b-FC models. The seven instruments included: BD FACSCalibur , BD FACSArray Bioanalyzer, Accuri C6, Partec CyFlow(®) Space, Beckman Coulter FC 500, Guava EasyCyte Mini, and Luminex 100. Current reports related to the food industry describe fungal co-infections leading to poly-mycotoxin contamination in grain (Sulyok M, Berthiller F, Krska R, Schuhmacher R, Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2006;20:2649-2659). It is imperative to determine whether b-FC-based assays can replace traditional single-mycotoxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
- A six-plexed poly-mycotoxin kit was tested on seven different b-FCs. The modified kit was initially developed for the BD FACSArray Bioanalyzer (BD Biosciences) (Czeh A, Mandy F, Feher-Toth S, Torok L, Mike Z, Koszegi B, Lustyik G, J Immunol Methods 2012;384:71-80).
- With the multiplexed platform, it is possible to identify up to six mycotoxin contaminants simultaneously at regional grain collection/transfer/inspection facilities.
- In the future, the elimination of contaminated food threats may be better achieved with the inclusion of b-FCs in the food protection arsenal.
- A universal protocol, matched with post-acquisition software, offers an effective alternative platform compared to using a series of ELISA kits.
To support the side-by-side evaluation of seven flow cytometers, an instrument-independent fluorescence emission calibration was added to the protocol. All instrument performances were evaluated for strength of agreement based on paired sets of evaluation to predicate method. The results suggest that all b-FCs were acceptable of performing with the multiplexed kit for five of six mycotoxins. For OTA, the detection sensitivity was consistent only for five of the seven instruments.