:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised urgent questions about containment and mitigation, particularly in countries where the virus has not yet established human-to-human transmission. The objectives of this study were to find out if it was possible to prevent, or delay, the local outbreaks of COVID-19 through restrictions on travel from abroad and if the virus has already established in-country transmission, to what extent would its impact be mitigated through quarantine of symptomatic patients?”:These questions were addressed in the context of India, using simple mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. While there remained important uncertainties in the natural history of COVID-19, using hypothetical epidemic curves, some key findings were illustrated that appeared insensitive to model assumptions, as well as highlighting critical data gaps.
It was assumed that symptomatic quarantine would identify and quarantine 50 per cent of symptomatic individuals within three days of developing symptoms. In an optimistic scenario of the basic reproduction number (R00) being 1.5, and asymptomatic infections lacking any infectiousness, such measures would reduce the cumulative incidence by 62 per cent. In the pessimistic scenario of R0=4, and asymptomatic infections being half as infectious as symptomatic, this projected impact falls to two per cent.:Port-of-entry-based entry screening of travellers with suggestive clinical features and from COVID-19-affected countries, would achieve modest delays in the introduction of the virus into the community.
Acting alone, however, such measures would be insufficient to delay the outbreak by weeks or longer. Once the virus establishes transmission within the community, quarantine of symptomatics may have a meaningful impact on disease burden. Model projections are subject to substantial uncertainty and can be further refined as more is understood about the natural history of infection of this novel virus. As a public health measure Bio Basic Port Manifolds, health system and community preparedness would be critical to control any impending spread of COVID-19 in the country.
Description of an integrated management system for invasive mosquitoes at entry-exit ports in Zhejiang, China.
As mosquitoes are one of the most harmful creatures in the world, recent high-frequency interceptions of invasive mosquito species have emphasized the need to enhance the biological security of the Zhejiang Province in China. As such, an integrated management system should be implemented to monitor the vectors of mosquito-borne diseases during data digitization and the processing of permanent E-forms and provide an online one-stop identification service.This system is a semi-open network built on the latest Microsoft.NET Framework, Active Server Page.NET (ASP.NET) and Internet Information Services (IIS) for the Windows 2000 service as a basic infrastructure platform.
This creates a physical separation between the data input as the back-page intranet and the online automated Lucid identification as the front-page internet through the digital interchange platform and security firewall.This system mainly comprises three core modules: automated statistical analysis of operational data, online vector identification and digital specimen storage management, in addition to accessory modules.
The joint analysis of invasive and native data collected between 2011 and 2017 at 14 surveillance points in the Zhejiang Province, excluding Ningbo Port, provided insights into the geographical differences in species abundance and the dynamic nature of seasonal interception within the statistical analysis module. Most importantly, multi-access keys to mosquitoes based on Lucid software were loaded in the module for vector identification. Subscribers can utilize this procedure for the online identification of 2 subfamilies, 10 genera and 33 mosquitoes by selecting any typical morphological feature in the classification system that matches the current images at hand.
Our report suggests that this system can enhance the ability to master the basic information on invasive mosquitoes and satisfy the increasing requirements for public health safety in the integrated management of vector-borne diseases.
Influence of the marvelous three-way stopcock on the natural frequency and damping coefficient in blood pressure transducer kits
Two types of Planecta ports are commonly used as sampling ports in blood pressure transducer kits: a flat-type port (FTP) and a port with a three-way stopcock (PTS). Recently, a new type of three-way stopcock (Marvelous™) has been released as a Planecta counterpart, but its effects on the frequency characteristics and reliability of blood pressure monitoring have not been investigated. We assessed the influence of the Marvelous stopcock on the frequency characteristics of the pressure transducer kit. The basic pressure transducer kit, DT4812J, was modified by replacing one or two of the original three-way stopcocks with Marvelous stopcocks.
The frequency characteristics (i.e., natural frequency and damping coefficient) of each kit were determined using wave parameter analysis software, and subsequently evaluated on a Gardner chart. Replacement of the original blood pressure transducer kit stopcocks with Marvelous stopcocks decreased the natural frequency (48.3 Hz) to 46.3 Hz or 44.8 Hz, respectively; the damping coefficient was not significantly changed. Plotting the data on a Gardner chart revealed that the changes fell within the adequate dynamic response region, indicating they were within the allowable range.
Insertion of Marvelous stopcocks slightly affects the natural frequency of the pressure transducer kit, similar to inserting a PTS. The results indicate that the Marvelous™ stopcock is useful for accurate monitoring of arterial blood pressure, and maybe recommended when insertion of two or more closed-loop blood sampling systems is necessary.
Research and the recent evolution of primary health care
Primary care in Spain has undergone a burgeoning phase in the 80’s, followed by a decade of stagnation in the 90’s, with little creativity, a routinisation of tasks, and the set up of service port-folios and program-contracts. On the other hand, the recent changes in the orientation of the research promoted by the health administration, in favor of basic research, at the expense of health services research and clinical epidemiology, are in contrast with the importance of primary care as a natural setting for the management of many causal agents and risk factors for health.
Despite such limitations, the culture of research has become present in many primary care centres and pharmacies, and primary care research is increasingly present in scientific journals. Nevertheless, it is necessary, also for the case of primary care, to manage research, in differentiated and specific ways, favoring priorization, evaluation and responsibility through flexible organisational formulas and information systems.
This should include contracting procedures allowing for at least part-time research, as well as professional career models acknowledging research and teaching activities. Scientific and professional associations in primary care face the challenge of maintaning research projects, of increasing their presence among professionals, of formulating opinions regarding the problems of their sector, as well as of reinforcing their organizational and communication capabilities.